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Nanosized fire retardants

Date:2022-7-29 17:27:43 Browse:0
Nanosized fire retardants

With the advent of nanotechnology in the past few decades, the prospects of nano scale fillers in polymer-based composites in the flame retardancy applications have progressed rapidly. Although nanofillers do not show excellent fire retardance inherently,  incorporation of low amount of them in polymer composites tend to provide drastic improvement in thermal stability,  smoke release amount,  peak heat release rate and the speed at which flames spread throughout the nanocomposites. The main mechanism of fire retardancy for nanocomposites, which happens in the condensed phase, depends on different factors including structure and chemical composition of the nanofiller.  In general, the presence of nanofillers in polymer matrix can alter the overall response of nanocomposites during exposure to flame. A list of most commonly used nanofillers in nanocomposites with the aim of fire retardant is summarized in Table 2.

TABLE 2. List of common nano flame retardants in polymer composites

Nanofiller

Nanofiller loading

Polymer matrix

References

Metallic particles

ZnO2 nanowires

10–40 wt%

Polypropylene

109

Aluminum tri-hydroxide (ATH)

8–14 wt%

Polyurethane foam

42

Zinc oxide

1 wt%

Polypropylene-ethylene-propylene-diene monomer

52

Nanoclay

1–3 wt%

Polystyrene

39

Bio based fillers

Lignin

15–20 wt%

Polypropylene

63

Starch

10 wt%

Polylactic acid

69

Proteins

20 wt%

Polyester

70

Cellulose nanocrystals (treated)

10 wt%

Polylactic acid

82

Intumescent flame retardant

20 wt%

Polylactic acid

69

Carbon family

Carbon nanotube

0.25 wt%1 vol%

Epoxy–polypropylene

8885

Graphene

2 wt%

Polyurethane, polypropylene

9596

Fullerene

2 wt%

Polypropylene

106

 


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